Bermuda grass(Cynodon dactylon)
Bermuda grass | Cynodon dactylon.
Bermuda grass is found lying on the ground in fields like paddy, jute, sugarcane, maize etc. Bermuda grass is a well-known grass. Bermuda grass cannot survive in permanent waterlogged areas.
Bermuda grass. Its stems are green in color, sometimes red. Its stem is about 5 to 45 cm long, smooth and rounded. Inflorescent stems are erect. The petals spread like fingers from the top of the bud. It propagates by seeds, stolons and rhizomes. Bermuda grass roots extend deep into the soil. By cultivating the soil a little deeper, the rhizomes of this grass can be brought to the surface of the soil and destroyed by the heat of the sun.
Common name of Bermuda grass.
Bengali name – Durba ghas.
Hindi name is Durba.
English name: Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon.
Scientific Name: Cynodon dactylon Pers.
Other Common Names: Durba (Sanskrit), Durba (Bengali) Duba (Hindi and Orissa). Apart from this, it is also known as Sahasravirya, Shata Parvika etc.
Origin of Bermuda grass.
Bermuda/Cynodon dactylon Pers is native to the Indian Ocean basin, from East Africa to India. In India, this grass is known as Durba grass and has medicinal uses in the region.
Bermuda grass was later introduced to other regions throughout the tropics and subtropics. Bermuda grass is found at altitudes of 2600 m in the tropics and 4000 m in the Himalayas.
This grass grows everywhere and is found in northeastern and western tropical and northern Africa (Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan and Tunisia); and Middle Eastern countries and temperate and tropical Asia (Afghanistan, China, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Thailand).
Bermuda grass or Kusha grass, scientifically known as Desmostachya bipinnata, commonly known in English as halfa grass, big cordgrass and salt reed-grass, is an Old World perennial grass, known and used for a long time in human history.
Bermuda grass is considered one of the most auspicious plants in India. Bermuda grass is the second most sacred plant on the planet! This small herb is packed with numerous medicinal properties and all its parts such as roots, stems, leaves and flowers are used in the preparation of various Ayurvedic medicines.
Bermuda grass is a herbaceous medicinal plant. It can contribute significantly to the health and strength of the human body. Bermuda grass generally has the ability to survive in adverse conditions for long periods of time. In no country in the world does Bermuda grass require specific cultivation.
Identify Bermuda grass.
There are hundreds of grass species in the world and technical knowledge is required to distinguish one grass from another. But it is very difficult for a people to identify novice Durba grass.
Most grasses have a similar growth pattern and appearance in terms of blade length and color. This is why Topperone has created this guide on identifying Durba Grass/Bermuda Grass. We hope this guide helps you identify bermudagrass.
Growth pattern of Bermuda grass.
Durba/Bermuda grass is a common grass plant of lawns, pastures and meadows. It is commonly found along roadsides and sandy dunes.
In the United States, bermudagrass grows in areas with average annual temperatures between 6-28 degrees Celsius. Although the optimum daily temperature for Bermuda grass is 17-35 degrees Celsius.
Bermuda grass stops normal growth below 15 degrees Celsius. Grass can die if temperatures drop below -2 to -3.
The natural creeping growth of Bermuda grass by stolons and rhizomes helps in the recovery of grasses affected by extremely low temperatures.
Identification of Bermuda grass.
Bermuda grass has a very unique appearance and growth pattern and such factors help distinguish this grass from others.
Here are some introductions to Bermuda grass.
Durba grass/Bermuda grass has grey-green blades and is short in height. Blades are 2-15 cm long with rough edges.
Bermuda grass plants have slightly flattened stems and are often purple in color. It can grow up to 1-30 cm in height.
Bermuda grass has a unique characteristic of producing seed heads in drought conditions. These seeds help Bermuda grass survive under stressful conditions.
Seed heads are produced in clusters of two to six spikes together at the top of the stem. Each spike is 2-5 cm long.
Some biotypes of Bermuda grass produce numerous seeds.
White hair on the blade.
The main difference between Bermuda grass and other grasses is the presence of white hairs at the time of leaf emergence.
Deep root system.
Bermuda grass/Durba grass has a deep root system that can grow to a depth of 2 meters. Bermuda grass creeps over the soil with its stolons and rhizomes and forms new roots by touching the nodes to the soil.
Bermuda grass is an invasive species.
Bermuda grass is a very aggressive grass species and crowds out other grasses. The main problem with invasive durba grass is its complete eradication. But with Glyphosate, Triclopyr can be controlled to some extent.
Response of Bermuda grass to environmental changes.
Bermuda grass has low shade tolerance and is highly sensitive to shade. It can die under moderate to heavy shade.
Additionally, Bermuda grass is highly susceptible to pests and diseases, including leaf spots, parasites and rust diseases.
Method of sowing seeds or cultivation system of Bermuda grass.
Choose an open sunny location for creating a lawn. Especially on the south side of the garden.
Prepare the soil by digging thoroughly (45-60 cm), removing stones, weeds and other debris.
Add good quality organic manure to the soil and mix it into the soil.
Make a 15 cm surface layer of fine soil and level the land properly.
Collect Doob grass (carpet lawn) seeds from a reliable source. About 500 grams of seeds are required for 200 square meters.
Since the seeds are small and powdery, mix them with twice the amount of sand.
Before sowing, the surface is scratched to a depth of 2.5 cm with the help of a garden rake.
So that the seed-sand mixture is spread evenly throughout the soil. For large lawns, the total area should be divided into equal plots of 200 to 300 square meters. To ensure even seeding. Avoid sowing on days of heavy rain. The seeds should be sown in the afternoon and at cool temperatures.
After sowing is completed, the rake is lightly pulled twice in the opposite direction to mix the seeds.
It would be advisable to cover the seeds with a thin layer of finely sifted soil.
Watering is done daily by hose pipes fitted with fine nozzles to keep the surface moist.
After the first watering, a light rolling should be done.
The seeds begin to germinate three weeks after sowing. Reseeding should be done to cover such areas if germination is poor or patchy.
There is an ancient belief in the mouth of the people that seeds sown within two days of the full moon have the best germination and strong growth.
When the grass is about 5 cm tall, it is cut with garden shears.
Primarily lawn mowers are not used as this will uproot the grass.
This method takes 5-6 months to create a green dove grass lawn.
Which type of climate is good for Durba grass?
Cynodon dactylon is widely cultivated throughout the world in warm climates between about 30° S and 30° N latitude and receives between 625 and 1,750 mm (24.6 and 68.9 in) of annual rainfall (or less, if irrigation is available). For example, it grows in the southern part of most countries in the United States.
It has a deep root system. In drought conditions with permeable soils, the root system can grow up to 2 m (6.6 ft) deep, although most root masses are less than 60 cm (24 in) below the surface. The grass creeps along the soil with its stolons and roots wherever a node touches the soil, forming a dense mat. C. dactylon reproduces by seeds, stolons and rhizomes. Growth begins at temperatures above 15 °C (59 °F) with optimum growth between 24 and 37 °C (75 and 99 °F). In winter, the grass goes dormant and turns brown. Growth is enhanced by full sun and slowed by full shade, eg, near tree trunks.
Bermuda grass grows best in warm climates. It is commonly found in the southern half of the United States and in warmer climates.
It requires annual rainfall of 625-1750 mm but moisture levels are as low as 550 mm due to the presence of deep root systems and rhizomes.
Ideal soil conditions for Bermuda grass.
Bermuda grass grows best in deep, well-drained soil. But it is well adapted to a wide range of soils. The optimum soil pH range for growing Durba grass is 4.3 to 5.5 but it can grow in soils with a pH of 8.4.
Bermuda grass is well known for its salinity tolerance and has the ability to grow in coastal areas and irrigated lands.
What does this grass look like?
The ligule of the Bermuda grass leaf is covered with thin white hairs which hold the stem in place. The part of the keelmanjari containing the glume is hairy at the ends like small cuts. The leaves are all grey-green.
Branched of Bermuda grass.
Bermuda grass is multi-branched. The chapters are clear. Flat glabrous. gitwala red Roots grow from each episode. Grows by swinging on the ground.
Size and shape..
The blades are a gray-green color and short, usually 2–15 cm (0.79–5.91 in) long with rough edges. Erect stems can be 1–30 cm (0.39–11.81 in) long. Stems somewhat flattened,
The seed heads(Bahama grass) are produced in a cluster of two to six spikes together at the top of the stem, each spike 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) long (Bahama grass).
Bermuda grass flower.
Bermuda grass flowers are very beautiful. A flower contains 10 to 30 seeds. Pollination of these flowers occurs through wind. Flowers are good for 20 to 25 days. After that it turns into seeds. Domestic animals take these flowers as food, but not all animals can eat these flowers. Flowers do not smell.
Bermuda grass leaves.
Durba grass leaves are broad and long in length. Leaves contain abundant plastids. Leaf cells have nucleus and cytoplasm. If this tree gets enough organic matter and pesticides, the color of the leaves is dark green.
Giving the leaves of this grass to cows increases milk production. Increases immunity. These leaves contain a large amount of antibiotics, which help to stop bleeding in the infected area.
Bermuda grass leaves are used as food by all domestic animals. It is used in food as well as medicinal purposes. Bermuda grass leaves are used in Hindu worship. The importance of this grass leaves is immense.
What does it look like?
Leaves linear. Durba grass covers the stems with leaf sheaths. The color of the plant is light green to dark green. Leaves are sparsely hairy. Edges are smooth.
The flower-bearing stem is erect, the flowers are branched like grapes. Its flowers are 3 to 5. Flat on the sides. Flowers without petals are in two rows.
Flowers produce fruits and seeds. Green colored seeds are small shiny. Flowers produce seeds. Flowers and seeds mature from April to July and seedlings grow from the seeds within a few days.
Useful parts: leaves and roots.
Contains triterpenoids, proteins and molecules. Organic acids are also available.
Beneficial part: Full part. Triterpenoids, Pro
There are tins and mortars. Organic acids are also available.
Roots of Bermuda grass.
Bermuda grass roots stay above the soil surface. The roots of this grass are strong and in the form of bunches. The color of the roots is white and brown. The roots of these trees protect the environment from soil erosion. The roots of these plants help to maintain the normal temperature of the soil. This grass has no taproot.
Benefits of Bermuda grass.
Soon after the first rains of Baisakh(April/May), this grass starts growing spontaneously in the fields, around the houses. Its leaves are narrow, long, smooth and green in color. Their roots are in clusters under the soil. Bermuda grass contains terpenoid compounds like arundine, lupinone etc. Apart from this, protein carbohydrates and several organic acids are available in this grass.
Cynodon dactylon is the botanical name of Bermuda grass and Dub Dobar, Dubra or Daob is the common name of this small grass in India. Although this short grass is classified as a weed, landscape consultants and gardeners praise it for its qualities such as softness, easy growth, low maintenance, climate adaptability, self-growth, rapid propagation and succulents. This grass is also known as Bermuda grass and some animals like rabbits, goats, pigs etc. eat the semi-hard white roots as energy food. The root of this herb also has amazing properties and many health benefits. It also has great spiritual value! Here are some of its uses, benefits and features.
Herbal qualities( herbal medicine).
Bermuda grass has magical herbal properties. According to Ayurveda Bermuda grass is Mahaushad. If the blood is bleeding from different parts of the body apart from the mouth and nose, mixing raw milk with the juice of Bermuda grass will relieve this disease. In case of bleeding due to cuts or injuries, if this grass or its roots are mixed with a little water and tied to the cut, the bleeding will stop. Mixing coconut oil with Bermuda grass juice on the hair gives special benefits to prevent hair loss. Consuming this juice in case of nausea relieves nausea. Dysentery is cured by mixing Bermuda grass leaf juice with pomegranate leaves or pomegranate bark juice. Bermuda grass juice is able to reduce the amount of glucose in the blood in our body.
Bermuda grass plays a helpful role in restoring the normality of the body’s excretory system. Bermuda grass juice mixed with milk and water is beneficial if there is difficulty in urination. Due to white matter weakness, taking Bermuda grass and raw turmeric juice mixed in equal quantity, these patients are able to overcome the weakness. Apart from this, dry powder of this grass and brush the teeth with that powder cures pyorrhea of the gums.
Uses of Bermuda grass.
Bleeding is stopped immediately if the cut is bruised with a stick of Bermuda grass or with a tooth.
If the girls are not menstruating in any way, drinking a cup of Bermuda grass beet juice is very beneficial.
Consuming a cup of Bermuda grass juice mixed with a little sugarcane juice every morning on an empty stomach cures horse sickness.
Applying the young tip of Cynodon dactylon Pers with a little mustard oil to the cavity of the tooth kills germs and is beneficial.
In case of eczema of the feet, itching and giving the juice of durbagas is better in a few days.
Apathy, fatigue, gallstones, vomiting and blood act as dosha destroyers. In this case, boiling the juice and water of Bermuda leaves equal to the durbar root and making a decoction and drinking it for a few days will help.
For acne on the face, one cup of Bermuda grass juice and one cup of old ghee and washed face with water will cure acne.
Applying one part Bermuda grass juice and one part sesame oil on the scalp twice a week regularly for three months stops hair loss.
In case of rheumatism in the body, it is good to take Bermuda grass juice mixed with equal amount of raw turmeric and equal amount of milk.
Bermuda grass and Atap rice mixed together and fried in oil three/four days a week with rice is beneficial.
In response to pyorrhea of the teeth, the juice of Bermuda grass and milk mixed with the teeth is good for pyorrhea.
Medicinal properties of Bermuda grass.
Bermuda grass is a highly medicinal herb of great importance in Ayurveda. It is used externally and internally to relieve stress, headache, body heat, eye irritation, bloody nose, ulcers, acidity, ascites, abdominal pain, skin diseases and fever. Walking barefoot on a carpet of Bermuda grass is also therapeutic and healing in nature. Cats and dogs chew Bermuda grass for relief whenever they feel sick.
Bleeding is stopped immediately if the cut is bruised with a stick of durbagh grass or with a tooth.
In case of eczema of the feet, itching and giving the juice of Bermuda grass is better in a few days. In autumn, the dew that remains on the Bermuda grass before sunrise is good for the skin.
Cow’s milk becomes thicker and tastier when cows are fed Bermuda grass.
Apathy, fatigue, inflammation of the bile and blood act as destroyers of doshas. In this case, boiling the juice and water of Bermuda grass leaves equal to the durbar root and making a decoction and drinking it for a few days will help.
People who have nosebleeds take the juice of Bermuda grass leaves in their nose to stop the bleeding.
Methanolic in Bermuda grass prevents cancer. Consuming 2-3 spoons of durbar leaf juice every day is beneficial.
Bermuda grass is also very effective in anti aging.
In dysentery, mix 2 to 3 spoons of Bermuda grass juice with pomegranate leaves or 4 to 5 spoons of pomegranate bark juice and take it 3 to 4 times a day. By eating like this for 10 to 15 days, dysentery will get better.
Mix 2 to 3 spoons of Bermuda grass juice with 1 teaspoon of sugar every 1 hour to stop nausea. But stop eating when the nausea subsides.
Heat one liter of coconut oil in a pot on low heat and skim off the foam. Then mix the fresh juice of Bermuda grass with 200 ml of whole oil and burn it again. Remove from oven and strain. Apply the oil on your hair 1 hour before taking a bath. Regular use for 2 to 3 months will stop hair loss.
Bermuda grass plays an important role as an herb in Ayurveda. Its extract is very useful in controlling diabetes. It is medicine against every disease of the human body
It also helps to increase the potency and also helps in controlling urinary problems. Bermuda grass paste is also effective in treating skin related problems through topical application – just churn some Bermuda grass and apply a thin paste on the affected area. Bermuda grass can also improve digestion. Further, the juice of this herb acts as a natural detoxifier and helps eliminate toxins from the body.
Bermuda grass extract is also very useful in fighting acidity and related problems and provides quick relief. This wonderful herb is packed with many health nutrients and also helps in curing ulcers. Keep its powdered leaves on your mouth for a few minutes to cure mouth sores. What’s more, this herb acts as a mouth freshener and strengthens the jaw. You may have noticed that dogs chew on this grass when they are sick. In short, semi-chewed grass with bad enzymes, acid and salt makes them feel lighter and cures them from minor digestive problems.
In rural areas, dried Bermuda grass is burnt with low flame and high smoke and used as mosquito repellent for pets or domestic animals like cows, buffaloes and horses. During summer and monsoon, the smoke of this grass keeps insects, bees and mosquitoes away from these animals at night.
Gardeners like to create a green bed of this grass, as it gives positive energy. Moreover, this grass grows very quickly with little care and maintenance. It has the ability to stay green even during drought.
It is good fodder for milch cattle as its juice increases lactation capacity.
Bermuda grass | important unknown information.
Bermuda grass is fast growing and hardy, making it popular and suitable for sports fields, as it will recover quickly if damaged. It is a highly desirable turf grass in warm temperate climates, especially for areas where its heat and drought tolerance enables it to survive where few other grasses exist. This combination makes it a frequent choice for golf courses in the southern and southeastern United States. It has a relatively thick-bladed form and there are numerous cultivars selected for different turf requirements.
Cultivation in California soil.
Bermuda grass is cultivated in the saline soils of California’s Central Valley, which are too salt-damaged to support agricultural crops; It was successfully irrigated with saline water and used for cattle feed.
Bermuda grass called Devil grass.
It is a highly aggressive invasive species, crowding out most other grasses and invading other habitats, and in some areas it has become a difficult weed to eradicate (it can be controlled to some extent with triclopyr, mesotrione, fluazifop-p-butyl and glyphosate. This weed Nature has led some gardeners to name it “devil grass”. Bermuda grass is incredibly difficult to control in flower beds and most herbicides do not work. Anyway, Ornamec, Ornamec 170, Turflon ester (tricyclopyr), and Imazapyr have shown(Scutch grass) some effectiveness. All of these items Hard to find in retail stores, as they are primarily marketed to professional landscapers.
Disadvantages of Bermuda grass.
The hybrid variety Tifton 85, like some other grasses (eg, sorghum), produces cyanide under certain conditions, and has been associated with several livestock deaths.
Different countries use this grass in stadium.
NFL playing surface
State Farm Stadium in Glendale, AZ (Tiffway 419 Hybrid Bermudagrass)
M&T Bank Stadium in Baltimore, MD (Tiffway 419 Bermudagrass)
Arrowhead Stadium in Kansas City, MO (Latitude 36 Bermuda Grass)
FedEx Field in Landover, MD (latitude 36 Bermuda Grass)
Nissan Stadium in Nashville, TN (Tiffsport Bermuda Sod)
Allegiant Stadium in Paradise, NV
Levi’s Stadium in Santa Clara, CA (Tiffway II Bermuda Grass)
TIAA Bank Field in Jacksonville, FL (Tiffway 419 Bermudagrass)
Hard Rock Stadium in Miami, FL (Tiffway 419 Bermudagrass)
Raymond James Stadium in Tampa, FL (Tiffway 419 Bermudagrass)
MLB Playing Surface
Angel Stadium in Anaheim, CA (Tiffway 419 Bermudagrass)
Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles, CA (Santa Ana Bermudagrass)
Oakland Coliseum in Oakland, CA (Tifway II Bermuda Grass)
Petco Park in San Diego, CA (Bullseye Bermuda Grass)
Oracle Park in San Francisco, CA (Tiffway 419 Bermudagrass)
Known in India.
In India, commonly known as “Durba” or Durva Yugma, this herb is used in Ayurvedic medicine. In Hinduism, it is considered important in the worship of Lord Ganesha. A bunch of 21 shoots of this grass is usually offered during the puja ceremony. It has been a part of Hindu rituals since Vedic times.
Dip grass lawn:
Bermuda grass is the most commonly used lawn grass in India. This grass grows best in hot, sunny climates and does not grow well in shade. Many newer forms of dubbing grass are developed exclusively for lawn carpets. The lawn can be created by turfing, turf plastering, dibbling (planting grass roots) or seeding.
Celebrate festivals in India.
A unique festival called Durba Ashtami dedicated to grass is celebrated on the 8th day of Shuklapaksha in the Bhadra month(August – September) of the Hindu calendar.
Malayalam language in India.
It is known as “Karuka” in Malayalam and is part of Dasapushpam (Ten Sacred Flowers) of Kerala.
This grass is a Yoruba herb used for Esu or Elegba in the Ifa Orissa system.
Bermuda grass use in Hindu puja work.
Since Vedic times, Bermuda grass has been considered a sacred plant, and according to early Buddhist accounts, it was the material used by the Buddha for his meditation seat when he attained enlightenment under the Bodhi tree.
This grass was mentioned in the Rigveda for use in sacred ceremonies and for preparing seats for priests and deities.
Lord Krishna specifically recommends darbha or kusha grass in the Bhagavad Gita as part of the ideal seat for meditation. It is believed to prevent the energy generated during meditation from draining through our body (mostly through the feet and toes) to the ground.
Darbha Hindus use as a mat, the ring finger of the right hand while chanting Vedic mantras, homams and performing all religious rituals.
Only single-leaf darbhas are used for death ceremonies; A ring made of two leaves is used for auspicious and daily routines; For inauspicious but not death-related works, (like Amavasya Tarpanam, Pitrupuja, etc.) a three-leaf dharvam ring (pavitram) is used and a four-leaf dharva ring is used for prayers in temples.
Bermuda grass has the highest value in transmitting acoustic vibrations with its tip.
In India priests dip this tip in water and sprinkle it all over the house or temple to purify the place.
During the fire ceremony (homa), darbhas are placed around the fire to help block all negative radiations.
During an eclipse, darbhas are placed over vessels containing water and food, so that the negative effects of the rays coming from the eclipse do not spoil them.
Story of Lord Ganesha:
The story of Lord Ganesha and Bermuda grass is interesting. It says that there lived a demon known as ‘Analsur’ who tormented sages and saints. Annoyed by this demon, all the deities requested Lord Ganesha for help. To save the world, Lord Ganesha swallowed the beast whole. But, as soon as he did, he felt a burning sensation. The feeling was so intense that he couldn’t bear anything. Kashyapa Muni and other sages showered 21 piles of Bermuda grass all over Ganesha’s body and soon he was relieved of this affliction. Since then it became Ganesha’s favorite herb; Hence it is a household custom to offer a pile of Bermuda grass during every ‘Ganesh Puja’.
Frequently Asked Question about Bermuda grass.
1. Bermuda grass is called devil grass, why?
Answer: Durva/Bermuda grass is highly invasive. Devil grass is named because of its coarse nature. It is incredibly difficult for gardeners to get rid of bermudagrass in their flower beds. It is much more offensive to control in flower beds but some herbicides can work.
Synonyms of the Bermuda grass.
Dog’s tooth grass,
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