Carbon is a chemical element. Which have lot of good side. Human develop fully depends on Carbon.let’s know about it.
What is carbon?
Carbon is a chemical element like other elements in the periodic table. It remains in pure or nearly pure forms such as diamonds and graphite.
Carbon in the periodic table.
The atomic symbol of carbon is C. Carbon belongs to the group-14, in the period-2. It is a block-p element with atomic number 6. Its electronic configuration is [He]2s22p2.
In the prehistoric time, Fullerene were familiar to human in the form of charcoal. Naturalist Giuseppe Averni and Medic Cipriano Targioni of Florence were the first to discover that diamonds could be destroyed by heating. In 1694 they focused sunlight on to a diamond using a large magnifying glass and the gem eventually disappeared. Pierre Joseph Macquer and Godefroy de Villetaneuse repeated the experiment in 1771. Then in 1796, the English chemist Smithson Tennant finally proved that diamond was just a form of carbon by showing that as it burned it formed only CO2.
It has taken from the Latin word carbo, which means ‘Coal’.
Physical Properties of Carbon.
There are a number of pure forms of Fullerene including graphite, diamond, fullerenes and graphene.
It is a colorless, transparent, crystalline solid and the hardest known material.
Though diamond cannot conduct electricity at all, but graphite is a very good conductor.
Both diamond and graphite are insoluble in water.
Diamond is the hardest substance known to all, whereas graphite is soft and spongy.
Structure of carbon allotropes.
When an element exists in more than one crystalline form, those forms are called allotropes.
The two most common carbon allotropes are diamond and graphite. The crystal structure of diamond is an infinite three dimensional array of carbon atoms.
The crystal structure of graphite amounts to a parallel stacking of layers of Fullerene atoms. Within each layer the Fullerene atoms lie in fused hexagonal rings that extend infinitely in two dimensions. The crystal structure of graphite is of a kind that permits the formation of many compounds, called lamellar.
Nuclear properties of Carbon.
Fullerene has two stable isotopes, carbon-12 and carbon-13. The notable use for the nucleus of atoms places the atomic mass as a pre-superscript to the symbol of the element and the atomic number as pre-supersript. Thus, the isotope carbon-12 is symbolized 126C of the stable nuclides, the isotope carbon-13 is of particular interest in that its nuclear spin imparts response in a device called a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer.
Use of Carbon.
Carbon is unique among the elements in its ability to form strongly bonded chains, sealed off by hydrogen atoms.
Impure Fullerene in the form of charcoal is used in metal smelting. It is very important in the iron and steel industries.
Industrial diamonds are used for cutting rocks and drilling. Gold.
Fullerene fibre is finding many uses as a very strong material but it is light in weight. It is currently used in tennis rackets, skis, fishing rods rockets and aeroplanes.
Graphite is used in pencils, to make brushes in electric motors and in furnace linings. Activated charcoal is used for purification and filtration.
Uses of carbon in daily life.
It makes up about 18% of the human body. For example, sugar, glucose, proteins etc. are all made of it.
Fullerene is used in diamond and diamond is used as a jewellery product. But diamonds are also used for industrial purposes.
Scientists uses a rare amount of carbon-14 to measure the age of fossils, bones etc. By using carbon-14, scientists find the age and period of dinosaur bones and fossils.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).
1. What is carbon?
Answer: Carbon is a chemical element like other elements in the periodic table. It remains in pure or nearly pure forms such as diamonds and graphite.
2. Describe the position of Carbon in the periodic table?
Answer: The atomic symbol of carbon is C. Carbon belongs to the group-14, in the period-2. It is a block-p element with atomic number 6. Its electronic configuration is [He]2s22p2.
3. How is Diamond and Graphite?
Answer: Diamond is the hardest substance known to all, whereas graphite is soft and spongy.
4. What are the isotopes of carbon?
Answer: Carbon has two stable isotopes, carbon-12 and carbon-13.
5. How is the word carbon derived?
Answer: It has taken from the Latin word carbo, which means ‘Coal’.
6. What is called Allotropes?
Answer: When an element exists in more than one crystalline form, those forms are called allotropes.
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